Editing MARC Records (AACR2)
EDITING MARC RECORDS CHEAT SHEET (SLC AACR2 PRACTICES)
J. McRee (Mac) Elrod
21 May 2011
[Local practices bracketed]
In creating original MARC records and editing derived ones, the purposes are to (1) bring them up to AACR, ISBD, and MARC21 standards insofar as possible; and (2) make them meet the needs of our clients.
Quickly check or enter Fixed Fields
Particularly check LDR/17* and LDR/18* for records created before 1978
(AACR2 was published in 1978).
[On ITS this is done by clicking on LDR and 008, sometimes 006 and 007]
a = language material
g = audiovisual material (type coded in 008/33, e.g., 008/33 v =
m = now used only for computer files, e.g., a game or program;
text electronic resources are a if text
LDR/07 Bib lvl:
m = monograph
s = serial (see Serials Cataloguing Cheat Sheet)
i = integrating resource (loose-leaf or website)
LDR/17 *Enc lvl:
blank = full record book in hand
1 = full record book not in hand
2 = less than full record
8 = CIP record (upgrade)
I = OCLC full record
K = OCLC less than full
Most SLC records are 1
LDR/18 *Desc: a = AACR2
[001 SLC RSN added at revision step.
Client 090$e, often ebrary number or eISBN, may be substituted
on export, with SLC RSN moved to 035 (CaBNVSL)
[003 CaBNVSL, or client ID if their 090$e substituted in 001. Delete if it refers to an earlier 001.]
008/06 Date type:
s = single date
r = reprint dates
c = continuation (see Serial Cataloguing Cheat Sheet)
d = dead serial (see Serial Cataloguing Cheat Sheet)
m = multiple dates
n = unknown (try to use q and guess decade)
q = date in question, e.g. 194u
t = publication & copyright dates
008/07-10 Date one:
Year (s); year of beginning (m)
Latest year (r reprint, t copyright)
008/11-14 Date two:
year of ending (m), original printing (r), or copyright (t)
use 9999 if still being published
place of publication most common only
at = Australia (see MARC21 for states)
au = Austria
enk = England
fr = France
ie = Ireland
is = Israel
it = Italy
ne = Netherlands
nik = North Ireland
sa = South Africa
stk = Scotland
sz = Switzerland
vc = Vatican
States (U.S.) most common only:
alu aku azu aru cau ctu deu dcu flu gau hiu
idu ilu inu iau ksu kyu mau mdu miu mnu mou
msu mtu nmu oru ohu pau scu sdu tnu txu xxu
utu vau wau wiu wvu
abc bcc mbc nfc nkc nsc ntc nuc onc pic quc snc ykc
a = illustrated
b = maps*
c = ports*
d = charts*
e = plans*
f = plates**
g = music*
h = facsims*
i = coats of arms*
j = geneal tables*
k = forms
m = sound recording
o = photographs
p = illuminations
* use also in 300$b
** use in 300$a
blank = can be read by naked eye
a = microfilm
b = microfiche
s = electronic
a = abstracts, summaries
b = bibliographies (with 504)
c = catalogs
d = dictionaries
e = encyclopedias
f = handbooks
i = indexes
l = legislation
m = thesis
p = programmed texts
r = directories
s = statistics
008/28 Govt pub:
blank = not govt. pub.
i = international body (e.g. UNESCO)
f = federal
l = local (towns, counties)
s = state, province [remove "s" if a state university press
or provincial university press publication; do not code
state or provincial university press publications as "s"]
008/29 Conference pub:
0 = not a conference
1 = conference proceedings, i.e., collection of papers
presented at meeting
0 = not Festschrift
1 - is Festschrift (collection of essays in honour of an individual)
0 = no index
1 = index
0 - not fiction
1 - fiction
(do not remove alpha codes for type of belle lettres if present)
blank = not biography
a = individual autobiography
b = individual biography
c = collective biography or autobiography
d = contains considerable biographical information
language of text or predominate language
eng = English
fre = French
ger = German
spa = Spanish
blank = DLC
d = local library
If keying, key 3 spaces in front, remove hyphen, and insert 0's to make 8 spaces.
Change 010 of print edition in electronic record to $z.
020 ISBN. Remove any hyphens.
Change any 13 digit ISBNs in 024 3 to 020. Change 020 of print edition to
$z in electronic record.
022 ISSN. Insert hyphen if missing from middle of number.
035 RSN (001) of previous owner of record, qualified by the symbol for that library or utility. [If SLC RSN moved to 035, identify as (CaBNVSL. Remove (OCLC) 035 unless we submitted record to get number.]
Field 040 says $a who catalogued; $b in which language (LAC records only); $c who made it machine readable; and $d who finished the record.
Today originals are usually done in one operation online, but lie and use 040 $aCaBNVSL$cCaBNVSL$dCaBNVSL for original records.
For derived records in which access points remain French, leave $bfre (may be used by a Quebec library to determine display - aka print - constants generated by 246 indicators). Remove if notes are
changed to English. e.g., Canadian government publications.
Repeat the 040$a code in $c if lacking; remove other $d (with the exception of $dDLC) and add $dCaBNVSL. (Some libraries may opt to leave all $d's, even though there is no way of knowing which library did what to the record.)
MARC record checking software expects to find at least subfields $a and $c.
[042 $apcc. Indicates record meets minimum PCC standard. Many so coded do not. Do not enter, and delete if present.]
050 Library of Congress classification number
If two $a, enter a second 050 2nd indicator 4, using class number for 2nd $a, adding Cutter number and year. The first $a is for series classed as collections, or bibliographies classed in Z.
Add imprint year if lacking, unless open entry.
[052 Internal LC copy information. Delete. Also delete any local 9XX fields sometimes displayed early in record.]
055 Canadian classification number
If the number in 055 is from LCC tables, change to 050 2nd indicator 4, adding a period after $b. If number is from a companion schedule, and the 1st indicator is 0 (meaning LAC has), the 2nd indicator is 6 (meaning LAC assigned the number), with $2fcps or $2kfmod.
If 055 is assigned originally, 2nd indicator is 8 with $2 code of schedule, i.e., $2moys, $2kfmod, $2fcps (for FC and PS 8000).
Delete all 055s which duplicate class numbers in 050. The only 055s in the record should be FC, KF, and PS8000, or another schedule such as Moys, identified in $2.
If 055 ends in an "*", it means that a topic or geographic Cutter is needed. If it is an LCC number, and 050 is lacking, move it to 050 4 and add the two Cutters and year. If it is FC to PS 8000 (LAC does not assign KFmod), leave it in 055 8, and add the two Cutters with year. If both 050 and 055 are already present, delete.
If adding a DDC number, use indicators 74 with number edition used in $2. Do not Cutter.
086 Canadian government publication catalogue number (DSP).
090 Local call number
MARC tag number varies with system. [At SLC coded with slashes for line breaks, e.g.:
090 0 $aAB/1234.5/C6/D78/1998$bMAIN$c1-2$d1-2 ($b = location, $ccopies, $dvolumes)]
[If remote electronic resource for electronic aggregator or publisher, do not code 090$a. Code client in 090$b, subcategory if any in $f, client ID number, e.g., ebrary number, eISBN, in $e for transfer to 001 on export. 090 is deleted on export.]
Derived records often lack 050 and have 090 for locally assigned LCC numbers. Change to 050 4.
Add imprint year unless open entry.
If a DDC library, enter in 090 class number from 082, adding Cutter, title letter, and imprint year. If DDC is in derived 092, change to 082 4 and remove Cutter. [If the class number is longer than 8 spaces, insert a hyphen/slash, e.g.,: 090 0 $a123.456-/789/A88t/1999$bMAIN$c1-2$d1-2; label stock can only accommodate 8 spaces.]
092 OCLC DDC
Change to 082 4, removing Cutter ann title letter if present.
[093 SLC batch search key, $a. Deleted on export]
Check headings against LC and/or LAC authorities. Change to the established form. Note that RDA records produced during the test periods may have forms which differ from the established ones.
Subfields $i and $e will be removed on export from RDA text records.
If personal author(s) (and that is authors, not editors) the first is given, surname first, in 100. If the 100 would not now be a main entry, change to 700, change the 245 1st indicator to 0, and re Cutter. Remove $h (a UKMARC practice) before fore names. Remove $e (but this 100 would probably be 700).
It is SLC practice to change to 100 the artist in the case of exhibition catalogues, the original author in the case of standard legal texts with original author's surname at head of title. 1st indicator 1 for surname, e.g.: 100 1 $aSmith, Jones,$d1932-
Compilers is entry for compilations such as bibliographies, bibliographies, and indexes, not the works of others.
110 Corporate body as main entry.
If the work is the annual report of a corporate body, the report of a task force, or some such, the corporate body is the author. There are fewer corporate bodies as author (main entry) under current rules than earlier. If the 110 would not now be author, change to 710, changed the 245 1st indicator to 0, and re Cutter.
It is SLC practice to change to 710 the names of law reform commissions for informational reports.] Key 1st indicator 1 for a corporate body which begins with a jurisdiction, 2 for direct order, e.g.: 110 1 $aCanada.$Parliament., but 110 2 $aCanadian Unitarian Council.
111 Conference as main entry.
If what you have is conference proceedings, the name of the conference is the main entry. The name is followed by $n(number :$ddate :$cPlace), or if no number, $d(date :$cPlace). BUT 110$aCorporate Name.$bConference$n( ... In older records the order may be different, If ISBD punctuation lacking, and should be added.
130 Uniform title as main entry.
If the work is a sacred work like the Bible, that common title (known as a uniform title) goes in 130. For the Bible add or check language and date for correctness.
Apart from the Bible, it is SLC practice to change a 130 to 730, and change 245 first indicator to 0.
For parts of the Bible you have, e.g.: 130 $aBible.$pO.T.$pGenesis.$pO.T.$lEnglish$f1995
240 Uniform title as filing title.
Only after a 100. With the exception of classical music, it is SLC practice to changes 240 to 246* if distinctive, unless doing a special project for a library which desires 240.
If changing a 240, check that 245 1st indicator is 1. Delete non distinctive 240s.
e.g., "Works ...", "Poems ...", "Plays ...", unless doing a special project for a library which desires them.
*246 1 $iAlso known as:$a, 246 1 $ITranslation of:$a
The title as on the title page; use a "$b:" before subtitles (older records may have a comma or other punctuation). "=$b" (or just = if $b already used) before a title in another language; followed by "/$c" (older records may have comma or other punctuation) and up to three authors. If more than three, older records give the first followed by "... [et al.]." You may need to substitute "et al." for "and others".
If the persons responsible did different things, use a ";", e.g. /$cby John Smith ; illustrated by Tim Jones.
Only the first word and proper names are capitalized. Older records may have the first word after an initial article capitalized; change to lower case. Names of Acts are proper names. All German nouns are
capitalized. In older records, the 245 /$c may be lacking it the same as the 100 or 110. If you have the item or a photocopy of the title page, use /$cby or whatever wording is on the title page. The 245 /$c
should always be added where lacking, but it is *vital* where you have changed a 100 or 110 to 700 or 710. In the case of the 710, some records have "The Company" or some such statement in 260$b. The name of the corporate body would have to precede that, and would not if 110 is changed to 710 in the absence of 245 /$c. A recognizable form of the publisher's name should be in 260$b. Cf 260.
Check for 1st indicator 1 (for title added entry) if there is a 1XX (it was LC practice not to trace "Annual report"; SLC does). Check 2nd indicator for number of spaces to be skipped in filing, e.g., A = 2, An = 3, and The = 4, because of the space following the initial article, e.g.: 245 14 $aThe story of my life :$ban
autobiography /$cby Tom Jones.
SLC follows client preference in not considering alternate title to be part of title proper:
245 10 $a$h[gmd],$bor, .
246 30 $a.
Contrary to AACR2, record compound bilingual titles as found in the prime source, e.g.:
245 00 $aCanadian citations canadiennes.
246 30 $aCitations canadiennes.
As per AACR2, repeat letters to be read in more than one word.
245$h[gmd] General Material Designation.
If the item is nonbook, a general material designation follows the first title proper. It is enclosed in square brackets (some old records will be found without the brackets; add them). SLC has $h[gmd] before the ", or" for alternate titles.] AACR2 moved it to after first title proper in all other cases. Older records may have it later.
Do not supply missing GMD in RDA records. These will be supplied on export.
GMDs used by SLC
cartographic ... see [globe], [map]
[computer file see [electronic resource]
etching see [graphic]
interactive multimedia see [electronic resource]
text (large print) see [large print]
*Added at client request.
245/$c Statement of responsibility.
Move 245/$c for motion picture DVDs to 508.
246 Alternate title which represents the whole work.
246 31 $aParallel title.
246 14 $aCover title.
246 15 $aAdded title page title.
246 1 $iAt head of title:$aPhrase at head of title,
1st indicator 3 means added entry, no note; 1st indicator 1 means added entry and note; the second indicator says which print constant to use for the note; if no print constant is available, there should be $i$a as shown. See also 740.
Add 246 3 $a for any title by which an item is normally called whether on the item or not, e.g., Moonlight sonata, White paper on taxation, Patriot Act.
Use 246 to indicate simultaneous publication in another language, particularly Canadian Federal government documents, e.g. 246 1 $iAlso published in French under title:$a
Contrary to MARC21, SLC ends 246 with a full stop, so that notes created by 2nd indicators in its printed book catalogue product will end in a period, and 740 and 246 OPAC display will be the same.
247 Former title of integrating resource.
Insert for past title of integrating resource.
250 Edition statement.
Insert ISBD punctuation for edition author statement if lacking, e.g., 250 $a2nd ed. /$bby Tim Jones.
260 $aNew York, N.Y. :$bSmith & Jones,$c1995.
Change punctuation to ISBD punctuation if lacking. [It is SLC practice to always transcribe or supply jurisdiction for city in 260$a, using AACR2 abbreviations, and to not transcribe postal codes.]
Postal codes have AACR2 abbreviations substituted in order to achieve distinctiveness. "CA" can mean California or Canada; WA can mean Washington or Western Australia. SLC supplies jurisdiction in square
brackets if lacking, using AACR2 abbreviations plus Eng. and Que.
Do not shorten spelled out transcribed jurisdictions in RDA test records.
It is SLC practice for reproductions, to use MARC21 as follows: add to 260$a$b$c for original publisher $e$f$g for the micro or electronic publisher. Move the 533 microform or electronic collation to 300,
inserting the original pagination in curves after the SMD. Delete 533.
Substitute publisher's name for "The Association" and other such generic terms. Use ISBD Latin abbreviations [S.l] and [s.n].
If year is lacking, follow AACR2 for estimated years.
Use repeating 260$a$b (not repeating 260_ for later publishers of sets serials (contra AACR2).
264 Detailed imprint
Accept in derived records, but do not assign.
263 Predicted time of publication in a CIP record.
300 $ax, 100 p. :$bill. ;$c23 cm.
Insert ISBD punctuation if lacking.
Add size is lacking from a PCC record.
If multiple volumes, the number of volumes is given, e.g., 3 v. :$bill. ;$c28 cm. If the volumes are numbered right through as opposed to each volume starting with page 1, then, 3 v. (300 p.) :$bgraphs ;c26 cm. Other possible variations include 1 v. (various pagings) ;$c28 cm., 1 v.d) ;$c 28 cm., 1 v. (loose-leaf) ;$c29 cm. (Loose-leaf is used for material to be updated, not just anything in a binder.) Insert two spaces in front of "volume" for open entries, where number of volumes is not known.
Insert patron familiar terms e.g, CD, CD-ROM, DVD, DVD-ROM, and VHS in curves after SMD.
Do not shorten spelled out words in RDA test records.
JURISDICTION ABBREVIATIONS USED BY SLC IN 260$a
Australian Capital Territory A.C.T.
British Columbia B.C.
District of Columbia D.C.
District Federal D.F.
New Brunswick N.B.
New Hampshire N.H.
New Jersey N.J.
New Mexico N.M.
New South Wales N.S.W.
New York N.Y.
New Zealand N.Z.
Newfoundland and Labrador N.L.
North Carolina N.C.
North Dakota N.D.
Northern Territory N.T.
Northwest Territories N.W.T.
Nova Scotia N.S.
Prince Edward Island P.E.I.
Puerto Rico P.R.
Rhode Island R.I.
Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic R.S.F.S.R.
South Australia S. Aust.
South Carolina S.C.
South Dakota S.D.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics U.S.S.R.
United Kingdom U.K.
United States U.S.
Virgin Islands V.I.
West Virginia W.Va.
Western Australia W.A.
Yukon Territory Yukon
264 Detailed imprint.
Leave in derived records, but do not assign.
340-384 Do not assign, with the exception of 362 for serials. Accept if present. May not display in ILS at present. Data considered essential may be moved to 5XX.
365 Price. Delete. Price may be left in 020$c.
Change to 490 1; copy and paste into 830 0.
If it has a number or year, that goes after ;$v. The ";" before $v will often need to be inserted.
490 Series as on item.
Beginning June 1, 2006, the US Library of Congress is coding all series as 490 0.
It has been SLC policy since January of 1979 to have no 490 0 in bibliographic records. (Some but not all SLC customers index 490 in their series and/or title indexes, making access uneven between customers.) When you encounter a 490 0, and it contains no subject word, or a responsible corporate body, e.g.m "Penguin books", change the 490 0 to a 500 quoted pseudo series statement.
If the 490 0 transcribed series statement contains a subject word, e.g., "Studies in chemistry", change the 490 0 to 490 1, and enter the series in 830 with 2nd filing indicator 0-4. If the series title is generic, e.g., "Report" , and has not been established in either the LC or LAC authority files, add the name of the responsible body in curves. If established, use as found.
Provide ";$v" issue number or year as relevant. Include ISSN in $x if available.
Notes are free form, so ISBD punctuation does not apply.
If according to a publisher's website, an item is issued as part of a collection, consider 500 $aIssue as part of ...., with a 730 for the collection.
501 Issued with note
Use for DVD special features.
503 History of item.
Obsolete, but leave in older records and continue to use were needed for current records, e.g., 503 $aReleased as a motion picture in 2000.
504 Bibliography note.
Practice has changed for noting indexes and bibliographies. If there is a 500 $aIncludes index, and 504 $aBibliography: p. 1-100, delete both and substitute:
504 $aIncludes bibliographical references (p. 1-100) and index.
Delete a 500 containing only "CD" and a 538 containing only "VHS" or "DVD"; add use those as SMD in 300.
When there are named volumes with name chapters, or named parts with named subparts, to avoid complications and too complex punctuation, take advantage of the fact that 505 is repeating, and do
a 505 for each volume or named major part. The 1st 505 would have indicator "0" for print constant "Contents:", later ones "8" for no print constant. Do not use subfields $t$g$r; remove if present, and
change indicators from 00 to 0 .
When remote electronic resources have very detailed contents of several pages, use cut and paste to create the multiple 505s, accept the publishers formatting rather than changing to MARC. Remove any
strange characters introduced by copying and pasting.
508 Persons and bodies responsible for motion pictures.
Move persons and bodies in 245/$c for motion pictures to the beginning of 508.
511 Performers in motion pictures.
Our clients tell us that inclusion of summaries increases use due to keyword searching. But if quoting with "--", we attempt to screen out publisher's "puff" adjectives substituting "...", and just include the parts which actually tell you something about the item. When cataloguing an electronic resource from a PDF, there is often an abstract or summary which can be copied and pasted.
538 System requirements.
Delete 538 if no information other than "DVD". If other information such as region or sound, remove "DVD" and capitalize first letter.
588 Source of description.
For example, "Title from container.", "Last issue consulted: ...".
In MARC records, subject subdivisions have subfield codes $vForm, $xTopic, $yPeriod, $zPlace. Form subdivisions, e.g., Bibliography, Periodicals, ,may need to be changed from $x to $v. If in doubt about a form subdivision, check for "v" after the subdivision in _Free-Floating Subdivisions_. Remember that a form division can be used as a topic, e.g., 651 0 $aCanada$vMaps, if the work is maps, but 651 0 $aCanada$xMaps$vBibliography. Occasionally you will need to change a 650 to 600, 610, 651, or 655 as indicated below.
600 Person as subject.
Use same format as person as author. Ask yourself, did this person breath? If not, leave as 650, e.g., God, fictional characters.
610 Corporate body as subject.
Including governments. Code the same as 110.
611 Conference as subject.
See 111 for order of subfields and punctuation.
630 Uniform title as subject.
650 Topic as subject,
650 0 $aFamily$xReligious aspects$zCanada$vFiction.
LC has long had the policy of establishing no new inverted LCSH.
Now, gradually, they seem to be uninverting existing ones. Check any inverted LCSH in an SLC or derived record to see whether it has been uninverted in the authority file.
651 Place as subject.
Does not include governments), e.g.: 651 0 $aCanada$xHistory$y1755-1763.
655 Genre of item.
In LC records genre headings, e.g., Symphonies, Feature films, may still in 650. Change to 655 0 $aHeading. 6XX second indicators have been extended to 655, so change 655 7 $aHeading$2lcsh to 655 0.
Beginning May 2011, LCGFT authorities with prefer "gf", e.g. "Feature films", should be coded 655 7 $a.$2lcgft
Continue coding headings which are still LCSH, e.g. "Electronic books". as 650 0 $a., until established in LCGFT.
Authority records for LCGFT terms are coded as follows.
LCCN prefix: gf
008/11: z ("Other")
700 Person as added entry.
Personal authors in 245$c beyond the first, performers in 511; directors but not producers in 508, Remove $h before given name (a UKMARC practice). Removed $e information.
710 Corporate body as added entry. Code the same as 110.
Delete 710s for commercial motion picture producers.
See 110 for punctuation.
711 Conference as added entry.
See 111 for order of subfields and punctuation.
740 Title added entry.
Now titles which represent the whole work are coded 246, while titles which represent part of the work or a related work, are here.
Change titles which represent the whole work to 246. Remove initial articles and period at end in 246. See 246 above for correct indicators. Delete the notes which would now be supplied by the 2nd
indicators, or $i, e.g., 500 $aCover title: ...
830 Series entry.
Series as on item is in 490 1st indicator 1, and series as entered in the catalogue is here.
[852 Holdings information in some systems. Delete. 090 exported as 852s for some clients.]
[910/938 French equivalents of entry forms.
If requested by customer, items in French with English forms established by LC or LAC in 110/710/830, have LAC French forms in 910/938. If English forms are not established, and 650 6 RVM is provided, 040$b is coded "fre".]
[990 Cataloguer's initials]
Canadian Codes and Cutters
Canadian Provinces: Counter Province
Province/region DDC 043 KFmod Cutter Cutter Abbr.
Canada -71 n-cn--- xxc ZA2 C2
Alberta -7123 n-cn-ab abc ZA3 C25 A4 Alta.
British Columbia -711 n-cn-bc bcc ZA4 C26 B7 B.C.
Manitoba -7127 n-cn-mb mbc ZA5 C28 M3 Man.
New Brunswick -7151 n-cn-nk nkc ZA6 C3 N4 N.B.
Newfoundland -718 n-cn-nf nfc ZA7 C31 N5 Nfld.
Newfoundland & Labrador -718 nfc C31 N5 N.L.
Northern Territories -719 N.T.
Northwest Territories -7192/3 n-cn-nt ntc ZA8 C39 N6 N.W.T.
Nova Scotia -716 n-cn-ns nsc ZB2 C32 N7 N.S.
Nunavut -7195 n-cn-nu nuc ZA9 C39 N8
Ontario -713 n-cn-on onc ZB3* C34 O6 Ont.
Prince Edward Island -717 n-cn-pi pic ZB4 C36 P7 P.E.I.
Quebec (Province) -714 n-cn-qu quc ZB5 C38 Q4 Que.
Saskatchewan -7124 n-cn-sn snc ZB6 C37 S3 Sask.
Yukon (Territory) -7191 n-cn-yk ykc ZB7 C39 Y8 Yukon
Western Provinces C39 W37
Prairie Provinces -712 n-cnp--
Atlantic/Maritime Pr. -715 n-cnm-- C39 A8
Local governments A-Z ZB9